Table 3. The summary of partial correlation tests between Variable 1 (L1 or L2 Gradiency) and Variable 2 (acoustic coefficients). L2 proficiency was a control variable
L1 Gradiency (Var 1)
Var 2
Estimate
p
-value
L1 VOT coeff. (/d/–/t/)
.37
.111
L1
f0
coeff. (/d/–/t/)
–.12
.59
L2 Gradiency (Var 1)
L2 VOT coeff. (/t/–/t
^{h}
/)
–.22
.33
L2
f0
coeff. (/t/–/t
^{h}
/)
.29
.21