**Table 2. Simple and partial correlation test results. Two test variables are ones in each row (x) and ones in each column (y), and a control variable for partial correlation tests is participants’ English proficiency**

| Simple correlation (n=28) | Partial correlation (n=23) |

Variable x | Variable y | Variable y |

| | With a control variable z (English proficiency) |

(w/o distractor) | VOT diff. | F0 diff. | VOT diff. | F0 diff. |

VOT | –0.59 | 0.38 | –0.65 | 0.34 |

F0 | 0.32 | –0.35 | 0.19 | –0.23 |

VOT diff. | NA | –0.57 | NA | –.54 |

F0 diff. | –0.57 | NA | –.54 | NA |

Bold indicates p<.05, and italic <.1.

NA, not applicable.